Madagascar is the world's fourth biggest island after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo. Once, 300 million years ago, Madagascar connected the Indian subcontinent with Africa in the supercontinent of Pangaea. Given it's relative isolation from the Afro-Eurasian landmass of the old world, 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on earth. Although close to Africa, the first significant migrations came from the Austronesian people of Borneo. In around 1000 AD, they were joined by Bantu migrations from across the Mozambique channel. The island was united and ruled for the first time in the early 19th century which later lost its independence to the French, then regained it in 1960. 90% of the population of 22 million people live on less than $2 a day.